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2000 Publications

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NameAuthorDateSizeTypeID
Avoiding and Suppressing Oscillations (S-3)
This is the final report for the 1997-99 PSERC project on interarea electric power system oscillations. The main project objective was to determine the feasibility of computations to avoid or suppress large scale system oscillations. The main accomplishments of the project are:
    1. Discovery and initial analysis of a new mechanism for oscillations in which a strong resonance between two oscillatory modes is a precursor to the oscillations.
    2. Assessment of the computational speed of advanced eigenvalue algorithms for oscillations and its scaling with system size.
    3. Analysis of a steady state ''angle collapse" instability preceded by resonance in a low frequency oscillatory mode and caused by increasing interarea transfer.
    4. Improved eigenvalue sensitivity formulas taking account of the different time scales of oscillations and operator actions.
    5. New methods for quantifying the robustness of eigenvalues to uncertainties such as poorly known load or generator data.
    6. Nine, fourteen and thirty seven bus systems oscillation test cases.
    7. Foundational work towards a new generation of dynamics software with algebraically assisted numerics.
    8. Outline of an opportunity for the combined use of system measurements and model based software for real time control of oscillations.
    9. Identification of key barriers to developing software to assist the real time suppression and avoidance of oscillations.

Uploaded: November 27, 2002. Final Report for PSERC Project S-3 "Avoiding and Suppressing Oscillations", December 1999.  
Ian Dobson, Fernando L. Alvarado, Christopher L. DeMarco, Peter W. Sauer, Jianfeng Zhang, Scott Greene, Henrik Engdahl 07/29/16 853.48 KB PDF 00-01
Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems Coupled with Market Dynamics
Abstract - The use of market mechanisms to determine generation dispatch, and the natural tendency to seek improved economic efficiency through rapid market updates, raises a critical issue. As the frequency of market based dispatch updates increases, there will inevitably be interaction between the dynamics of markets determining the generator dispatch commands, and the physical response of generators and network interconnections. This paper examines questions of stability in such coupled systems through numeric tests using various market update models, with detailed generator/turbine/governor dynamics, in the New England 39 bus test system. The results presented highlight the nature of potential instabilities and show the participation of physical and market quantities through eigen- analysis. Understanding of potential modes of instability in such coupled systems is of crucial importance both in designing suitable rules for power markets, and for designing physical generator controls that are complementary to market-based dispatch.

Uploaded: February 10, 2000. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 4, PP. 695-701, NOVEMBER 2001.  
Fernando L. Alvarado, Jianping Meng, Christopher L. DeMarco, Wellington S. Mota 07/28/16 388.33 KB PDF 00-02
Is strong modal resonance a precursor to power system oscillations? (S-3)
We suggest a new mechanism for interarea electric power system oscillations in which two oscillatory modes interact near a strong resonance to cause one of the modes to subsequently become unstable. The possibility of this mechanism for oscillations is shown by theory and computational examples. Theory suggests that passing near strong resonance can be expected in general power system models. The mechanism for oscillations is illustrated in 3 and 9 bus examples with detailed generator models. This paper was produced under the PSERC project Avoiding and suppressing oscillations and is submitted to IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part I.

Uploaded: March 1, 2000. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I: FUNDAMENTAL THEORY AND APPLICATIONS, VOL. 48, NO. 3, PP. 340-349, MARCH 2001.
Final Report for PSERC Project S-3 "Avoiding and Suppressing Oscillations", December 1999.  
Ian Dobson, Jianfeng Zhang, Scott Greene, Henrik Engdahl, Peter Sauer 07/28/16 274.70 KB PDF 00-03
Report of the Department of Energy's Power Outage Study Team
Findings and Recommendations to Enhance Reliability From the Summer of 1999. This includes events in New England, New York City, Long Island, Mid-Atlantic Area, New Jersey, Delmarva Peninsula, South-Central States and Chicago.

Uploaded: March 15, 2000. Report of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Outage Study Team, Findings and Recommendations to Enhance Reliability from the Summer of 1999. Final Report March 2000.  
DOE, National Labs, and PSERC 03/15/00 216.85 KB PDF 00-04
New Methods for the Visualization of Electric Power System Information
Abstract - One area in need of new research in information visualization is the operation and analysis of large-scale electric power systems. In analyzing power systems, one is usually confronted with a large amount of multivariate data. With systems containing tens of thousands of electrical nodes (buses), a key challenge is to present this data in a form so the user can assess the state of the system in an intuitive and quick manner. This is particularly true when trying to analyze relationships between actual network power flows, the scheduled power flows, and the capacity of the transmission system. With electric industry restructuring and the move towards having a single entity, such as an independent system operator or pool, operate a much larger system, this need has become more acute. This paper presents several power system visualization techniques to help in this task. These techniques include animation of power system flow values, contouring of bus and transmission line flow values, data aggregation techniques and interactive 3D data visualization.

Uploaded: July 24, 2000. 2000 IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization (InfoVis 2000), Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9-10, 2000.  
Tom Overbye, and Jamie Weber 07/24/00 1.33 MB PDF 00-05
Enhancing Reliability of Power Protection Systems Economically in the Post-Restructuring Era
Abstract - The restructuring of electricity industry has renewed concerns about wide-area disturbances due to their increasing economic and social costs. Power protection systems have played significant roles in propagating these disturbances. In post-restructuring era, smarter relays should be put into service to enhance the overall system reliability. However, it is not economically feasible to replace all the protection devices. Given limited resources, we would like to find an optimal system upgrading solution that can maximally increase the system reliability. In this paper, we analyze the impact of consecutive relaying malfunctions and pinpoint the vulnerable locations in the New York Power Pool (NYPP) 3000-bus system by simulating electrical blackouts using the Cornell Theory Center’s supercomputers. We introduce a heuristic random search algorithm for faster search of important blackout paths. The optimal investment plan is given at the end of the paper.

Uploaded: July 17, 2000. 2000 North American Power Symposium (NAPS 2000), University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, October 23-24, 2000.  
James S. Thorp and Hongye Wang 07/28/16 392.35 KB PDF 00-06
Simulation of Bilateral Contracts in an AGC System after Restructuring
Abstract - In this paper, the traditional AGC two area system is modified to take into account the role of AGC as an ancillary service. The concept of DISCO participation matrix is introduced and reflected in the two-area diagram. Simulation studies as well as trajectory sensitivity studies are done, the latter for optimization.

Uploaded: August 9, 2000. ResearchGate Article, August 9, 2000.  
Vaibhav Donde, Mangalore A. Pai, and Ian A. Hiskens 08/09/00 865.04 KB PDF 00-07
Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets (M-1)
This project investigated methods for establishing justifiable costs for ancillary services. The current work focused on the issues of costing reactive power and voltage control. This included what has been called congestion charges related to the limitations of transfers due to inadequate voltage support at either load or generation sites. The final report includes on results on these issues as well as reactive market power, reactive loss allocation, and dynamic aspects of reactive power supply. This document contains the project's final report.

Uploaded: April 3, 2003. Final Report for PSERC Project M-1 "Reactive Power Support Services in Electricty Markets: Costing and Pricing of Ancillary Services", May 2001.  
Peter W. Sauer, Thomas J. Overbye, George Gross, Fernando L. Alvarado, Shmuel Oren, and James Momoh 07/29/16 396.46 KB PDF 00-08
Security Assessment: Decision Support Tools for Power System Operators
Presentation slides for the September 5, 2000 Internet Seminar. This talk will present new developments in Risk Based security assessment, decision support tools for power system operators. An overview of the risk based security assessment approach will be presented. Recent progress in extending this approach as a decision support tool for power system operators will be described.

Uploaded: October 5, 2000. PowerPoint slides from PSERC Tele-Seminar on "Security assessment: decision support tools for power system operators", Iowa State University, September 5, 2000.  
James McCalley 07/28/16 753.73 KB PDF 00-09
Are Price Spikes Predictable, Reproducible and Avoidable?
These are the Power Point slides used by Prof. Mount from Cornell University for the PSERC Internet Seminar on October 3, 2000. The primary objective of this seminar was to present two different but related areas of research on the volatility of spot prices for electricity? These areas are
    1) an analysis of actual price behavior in the PJM market, and
    2) a series of economic experiments to test how market structure affects price volatility?

Uploaded: October 5, 2000. PowerPoint slides from PSERC Tele-Seminar on "Are Price Spikes Predictable, Reproducible and Avoidable?", Cornell University, October 3, 2000.  
Timothy D. Mount 07/28/16 649.41 KB PDF 00-10
Evidence for self-organized criticality in power system blackouts
Abstract - We analyze a 15-year time series of North American electric power system blackouts for evidence of self-organized criticality. Scaled window variance and R/S analysis of the time series shows moderate long time correlations. The probability distribution functions of various measures of blackout size have a power tail. Moreover, the same analysis applied to a time series from a sandpile model known to be self-organized critical gives results of the same form. Thus the blackout data is consistent with self- organized criticality. Self-organized criticality, if fully confirmed in power systems, would suggest new complex systems approaches to understanding and possibly controlling blackouts.

Uploaded: October 10, 2000. 34rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 705-709, Maui, Hawaii, January 6, 2001.  
Ben A. Carreras, David E. Newman, Ian Dobson, A. Bruce Poole 10/10/00 108.36 KB PDF 00-11a
Initial Evidence for self-organized criticality in power system blackouts
Abstract - We examine correlations in a time series of electric power system blackout sizes using scaled window variance analysis and R/S statistics. The data shows some evidence of long time correlations and has Hurst exponent near 0.7. Large blackouts tend to correlate with further large blackouts after a long time interval. Similar effects are also observed in many other complex systems exhibiting self-organized criticality. We discuss this initial evidence and possible explanations for selforganized criticality in power systems blackouts. Selforganized criticality, if fully confirmed in power systems, would suggest new approaches to understanding and possibly controlling blackouts.

33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2000), "Initial Evidence", p. 4038, Maui, Hawaii, January 4-7, 2000.  
B. A. Carreras, D. E. Newman, I. Dobson, A. B. Poole 07/28/16 182.74 KB PDF 00-11b
Evidence for self-organized criticality in a Time Series of Electric Power System Blackouts
Abstract - We analyze a 15-year time series of North American electric power transmission system blackouts for evidence of selforganized criticality (SOC). The probability distribution functions of various measures of blackout size have a power tail and rescaled range analysis of the time series shows moderate long-time correlations. Moreover, the same analysis applied to a time series from a sandpile model known to be self-organized critical gives results of the same form. Thus, the blackout data seem consistent with SOC. A qualitative explanation of the complex dynamics observed in electric power system blackouts is suggested.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 9, PP. 1733-1740, SEPTEMBER 2004.  
B. A. Carreras, D. E. Newman, I. Dobson, A. B. Poole 07/28/16 333.72 KB PDF 00-11c
An initial model for complex dynamics in electric power system blackouts
We define a model for the evolution of a long series of electric power transmission system blackouts. The model describes opposing forces which have been conjectured to cause self-organized criticality in power system blackouts. There is a slow time scale representing the opposing forces of load growth and growth in system capacity and a fast time scale representing cascading line overloads and outages. The time scales are coupled: load growth leads to outages and outages lead to increased system capacity. The opposing forces result in a dynamic equilibrium in which blackouts of all sizes occur. The model is a means to study the complex dynamics of this dynamic equilibrium. The Markov property of the model is briefly discussed. The model dynamic equilibrium is illustrated using initial results from the 73 bus IEEE reliability test system.

Uploaded: October 10, 2000. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 710-718, Maui, Hawaii, January 6, 2001.  
Ian Dobson, Ben A. Carreras, Vicki E. Lynch, David E. Newman 10/10/00 232.15 KB PDF 00-12
Modeling blackout dynamics in power transmission networks with simple structure
Abstract - A model for blackouts in electric power transmission systems is implemented and studied in simple networks with a regular structure. The model describes load demand and network improvements evolving on a slow timescale as well as the fast dynamics of cascading overloads and outages. The model dynamics are demonstrated on the simple power system networks. The dynamics depend weakly on the network topologies tested. The probability distribution functions of measures of the cascading events show the existence of power-dependent tails.

Uploaded: October 10, 2000. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 719-727, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Ben A. Carreras, Vicki E. Lynch, M.L. Sachtjen, Ian Dobson, David E. Newman 10/10/00 178.28 KB PDF 00-13
Design of Ancillary Service Markets
We examine the design of bid selection protocols and settlement rules in ancillary service markets. Such markets are typically operated by an independent system operator (ISO) for competitive procurement of reserves that are needed to ensure the secure operation of a competitive electric power system. Reserve types are characterized in terms of response time and they are downward substitutable (faster responding reserves can replace slower ones). We explore how this substitutability is accounted for in alternative market protocols and we analyze the efficiency, distributional aspects and incentive compatibility of such protocols.

Uploaded: February 13, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Shmuel S. Oren 02/13/01 90.75 KB PDF 00-14
Analysis of Electric Power System Disturbance Data
Abstract - In this paper, NERC (North American Reliability Council) records of power system disturbances for the year 1984 through 1999 are explored. The disturbance sizes show a power law distribution which confirms the early results [2]. Further, we find that the probability density of time intervals between disturbances can be given an exponential fit. Based on this observation, the suitability of applying SWV analysis to power system disturbances data is questioned. An artificial time series is constructed to support our idea. A fuse model using DC load flow and fuse protection is presented to simulating the cascading events in power transmission networks. Some initial simulation results are shown to be consistent with NERC data. Besides SOC and HOT, this model gives another way to investigate power law behavior in power system disturbances.

Uploaded: February 13, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 738-744, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Jie Chen, James S. Thorp, and Manu Parashar 02/13/01 238.99 KB PDF 00-15
Optimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market
Abstract - this paper uses a first generation OPF model of the Eastern Interconnect to gauge the potential benefits deriving from RTOs in an ideal world. So long as the lines and generators are operating as planned, there is sufficient low cost capacity to keep peak demand prices in the Eastern Interconnect below $50 MWH. Under a reasonable approximation of ideal conditions a repeat of San Diego's experience is unlikely. Unfortunately a few downed lines or generator outages can greatly impact local prices even with unrestricted trade.

Uploaded: October 11, 2000. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 639-646, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Douglas R. Hale and Thomas J. Overbye 07/28/16 539.90 KB PDF 00-16
Efficient Available Transfer Capability Analysis Using Linear Methods
While the concept of ATC has been around for decades, the desire to calculate its value on a large scale is new. Organizations responsible for the reliable operation of the transmission system are given the task of determining ATC values on a daily basis. ATC calculations typically include a large number of contingencies as well as multiple transfer directions and multiple system conditions. This presents a labor-intensive task for those required to calculate ATC values. Because of these circumstances, Powerworld Corporation was approached by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to develop a new software product for their use in calculating ATC values. The new ATC tool, integrated into the Simulator OPF/ATC software product, was the culmination of this work. This talk will cover the basic engineering requirements and mathematics that governed the development of the ATC tool. The concept of Linear ATC analysis will be introduced, along with the underlying mathematics of Linear ATC analysis including * Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs) * Line Outage and Closure Distribution Factors (LODFs/LCDFs) * Outage Transfer Distribution Factors (OTDFs) Other special topics integrated into PowerWorld Simulator OPF/ATC will also be discussed such as (1) the inclusion of phase-shifting transformers directly in linear analysis, and (2) the iteration of linear ATC for use in modeling controller changes.

Uploaded: May 9, 2001. PowerPoint slides from PSERC Tele-Seminar on "Efficient ATC Analysis", PowerWorld Corporation, November 7, 2000.  
Jamie Weber, PowerWorld Corporation 07/28/16 1.04 MB PDF 00-17
Human Factors Analysis of Power System Visualizations
Abstract - This paper describes an experimental approach to formally testing the usability of different power system visualizations. In particular, the ability of participants to assess and correct power system voltage problems was tested. Participants were divided into three groups: the first group only saw tabular data, the second group one- line data, while the third group saw one-line data and a color voltage contour. The time to acknowledge the voltage violations and the time to correct the violations were assessed.

Uploaded: October 11, 2000. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 647-652, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Thomas J Overbye, Douglas A. Wiegmann, Aaron M. Rich, Yan Sun 07/28/16 417.54 KB PDF 00-18
A Virtual Environment for Protective Relaying Evaluation and Testing
Abstract - This paper presents the application of the virtual test bed for visualization and animation of protective relaying problems. The development of protective relaying animation and visualization objects as well as the interfacing with the virtual test bed is described. Two examples of protective relaying animation are presented: (a) modified mho relays and (b) transformer differential relays. The potential applications and utilization of the approach is discussed in the paper. Since any new relay is a digital relay, the proposed approach is amenable to directly interfacing the manufacturers "relay" with the Virtual Test Bed, thus providing a flexible testing tool for the plethora of relays and relay manufacturers. The resulting tool is extremely valuable for educational purposes.

Uploaded: December 7, 2000. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 625-630, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos and George J. Cokkinides 07/28/16 286.33 KB PDF 00-19a
A Virtual Environment for Protective Relaying Evaluation and Testing
Abstract - Protective relaying is a fundamental discipline of power system engineering. At Georgia Tech, we offer three courses that cover protective relaying: an undergraduate course that devotes one-third of the semester on relaying, a graduate course entitled “Power System Protection,” and a three-and-a-half-day short course for practicing engineers. To maximize student understanding and training on the concepts, theory, and technology associated with protective relaying, we have developed a number of educational tools, all wrapped in a virtual environment.
The virtual environment includes a) a power system simulator, b) a simulator of instrumentation for protective relaying with visualization and animation modules, c) specific protective relay models with visualization and animation modules, and d) interfaces to hardware so that testing of actual relaying equipment can be performed. We refer to this set of software as the “virtual power system.” The virtual power system permits the in-depth coverage of the protective relaying concepts in minimum time and maximizes student understanding.
The tool is not used in a passive way. Indeed, the students actively participate with well-designed projects such as a) design and implementation of multifunctional relays, b) relay testing for specific disturbances, etc. The paper describes the virtual power system organization and “engines,” such as solver, visualization, and animation of protective relays, etc. It also discusses the utilization of this tool in the courses via specific application examples and student assignments.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 19, NO. 1, PP. 104-111, FEBRUARY 2004.  
A.P. Sakis Meliopoulos, George J. Cokkinides 07/28/16 504.90 KB PDF 00-19b
Power System State Estimation: Modeling Error Effects and Impact on System Operation
Abstract - State estimation has been introduced to power systems and implemented in the 60s, using a single frequency, balanced and symmetric power system model under steady state conditions. This implementation is still prevalent today. The single frequency, balanced and symmetric system assumptions have simplified the implementation but have generated practical problems. This paper examines these simplified assumptions and their impact on the state estimation performance. We demonstrate the performance of proposed methods on an actual system (New York Power Authority system) using actual synchronized measurements. The paper concludes with a commentary on the implications of improved state estimation methods on the security/reliability monitoring and control of an electric power system.

Uploaded: December 7, 2000. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 682-690, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos, Bruce Fardanesh, and Shalom Zelingher 12/07/00 163.47 KB PDF 00-20
Instrumentation And Measurement Of Overhead Conductor Sag Using The Differential Global Positioning Satellite System (T-2)
Experience in many electric utility industries shows that the clearance of an overhead (HV) conductor above ground is a key factor limiting the available transfer capacity (ATC) of the conductor, especially in regions of high interconnection. This dissertation work deals with the design, construction, instrumentation and testing of a differential global positioning satellite (DGPS) system based instrument for the measurement of overhead high voltage (HV) conductor sag. Inherent and intentional errors in GPS technologies are discussed, and the DGPS method is described for accuracy enhancement. A DGPS based overhead conductor sag measuring instrument has been designed, constructed and subjected to selected laboratory bench and power substation testing. A method to directly measure the physical sag of overhead HV conductors is described. The main objectives of the experimental tests conducted were to evaluate the proper functioning of the radio communication links, assess the DGPS receiver capability in terms of GPS signal reception, and to also attest the behavior of the conductor sag measuring instrument under HV environment.

Uploaded: April 27, 2001. Ph.D. student dissertation, Arizona State University, August 2000. In conjunction with a Final Report for PSERC Project T-2 "Differential GPS Measurement of Overhead Conductor Sag: Development of a Graphic User Interface for an Overhead Conductor Sag Instrument", by Gerald T. Heydt, Project Leader.  
Chris Mensah-Bonsu, student; Project Leader: Gerald Heydt, Arizona State 07/28/16 2.80 MB PDF 00-21
Utililty Application of Fiber Optic Cables
The seminar will present the construction of different fiber optic cables and describes their applications by the utility industry. The cables are installed on high voltage transmission lines. Several years of operational experiments show that the high electric field produced by the phase conductors can destroy the improperly installed cables and cause severe loss of revenue. In a clear environment corona discharge can damage the cable. In polluted conditions dry- band arcing occurs and destroys the cable jacket. The seminar explains the phenomena, presents the results of laboratory simulation and gives a mathematical analysis that can be used to predict cable performance.

Uploaded: December 22, 2000. PowerPoint slides from PSERC Tele-Seminar on "State of Art Fiber Optic", Arizona State University, December 22, 2000.  
George G. Karady, Arizona State 12/22/00 2.83 MB PDF 00-22
Unbundled Reactive Support Service: Key Characteristics and Dominant Cost Component
Abstract - In this paper we provide a systematic review of generator-provided reactive support as an unbundled ancillary service under open access transmission. Through a number of illustrative examples, we discuss the nature and salient physical characteristics of reactive support. Also, we analyze their implications in acquiring VAr support as one of the ancillary compensators. services. The paper presents the analysis of the dominant component in the cost structure of this service. This component is determined from the opportunity costs, which are evaluated from the foregone profits of a generator in the real power markets in providing reactive support instead of real power. In addition, we discuss the key considerations in the acquisition and the pricing of the reactive support service.

Uploaded: April 30, 2001. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, PP. 283-289, MAY 2002.  
George Gross, Shu Tao, Ettore Bompard and Gianfranco Chicco 07/29/16 277.41 KB PDF 00-23
Electricity and Ancillary Services Markets in New York State: Market Power in Theory and Practice
This paper combines lessons learned from the New York ISO's experiences with economic principles in establishing guidelines for future design of electric markets for ancillary services. Abstract - Since electricity, and its reliable provision on command, is a multi-attribute commodity, it should be priced over multiple dimensions if it is to be provided efficiently, and that requires multiple but related markets. So far New York is the only domestic electricity market that has introduced separate segments for ancillary services, together with eleven locationally defined markets for energy. By fragmenting the market over dimensions of space, time, and various contributing factors to reliability, the chances for greater efficiency are available in theory, but by spreading the market out, the possibility also exists of having fewer potential suppliers for each segment, thereby increasing opportunities to exercise market power at particular times and places. In fact several instances of market power have been observed that are not surprising with the benefit of perfect hindsight, and the lessons learned are combined with theoretical principles to establish guidelines for future electricity market design and operation.

Uploaded: February 13, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Richard E. Schuler 02/13/01 436.79 KB PDF 00-24
The Effect of Loading on Reactive Market Power
Abstract - The degree of market power (more precisely, the potential for market power obtained from a market concentration indicator such as HHI) increases as system stress increases. This paper illustrates the effect of system loading on the reactive power HHI for various locations. The paper also illustrates the use of sensitivity formulas to come up with measures intended to improve (reduce) the overall HHI of a system by judicious addition of reactive power resources. Better results in terms of reduction of market concentration as a result of reactive power are obtained when the voltage collapse characteristics of the system are considered. The concepts are illustrated using the 14-bus and 57 IEEE-test systems.

Uploaded: February 13, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Antonio C. Zambroni de Souza, Fernando L. Alvarado, and Mevludin Glavic 02/13/01 101.87 KB PDF 00-25
Experimental Tests Of Competitive Markets For Electric Power
Abstract - Testing the performance of electricity markets using POWERWEB has already shown that relatively inexperienced players can identify and exploit market power in load pockets. When transmission constraints are not binding, however, auctions with six players have been shown to be efficient. There is evidence from operating electricity markets that prices can be driven above competitive levels when the largest supplier controls less than 20% of total installed capacity. This is accomplished by causing price spikes to occur. In experiments, uncertainty about the actual load and paying standby costs regardless of whether or not a unit is actually dispatched contribute to volatile price behavior. The objective of this paper is to investigate characteristics of a market that affect price volatility. The tests consider three different sets of rules for setting price when there are capacity shortfalls, and the following four market structures:
    1. Load is responsive to price
    2. Price forecasts are made before market settlement
    3. A day-ahead market and a balancing market auction
    4. Suppliers are paid actual offers (a discriminatory auction).

Uploaded: March 7, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Simon Ede, Timothy Mount, William Schulze, Robert Thomas, and Ray Zimmerman 03/07/01 215.85 KB PDF 00-26
Simulation Environment for Development and Testing of Plug Compatible Power System Applications
Abstract - The paper describes a simulation environment for research, development, integration, testing and deployment of plug compatible power applications. By using this environment the elapsed time from initial research to field deployment of new power applications can be dramatically reduced. The environment integrates the EPRI Operator Training Simulator with a Utility Software Development Framework. The Utility Software Development Framework uses the EPRI Common Information Model and the EPRI Application Program Interface for supporting the integration of plug compatible applications.

Uploaded: February 13, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 631-638, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Robin Podmore, Marck Robinson, and Anjan Bose 02/13/01 125.47 KB PDF 00-27
Min-max Transfer Capability: A New Concept
Abstract - In this paper we discuss a new concept of an interval for transfer capability and present an algorithm for computing its lower bound which we term the min-max transfer capability. The algorithm is a Bisection Search algorithm. We compare it to a branch-and-bound algorithm, which is standard for min-max problems. We find that the Bisection Search algorithm is efficient and simple to implement. We describe the conceptual analysis and the algorithm using a DC load flow setting. A generalization of the algorithm to problems using an AC load flow is briefly discussed. We then demonstrate the new algorithm using the IEEE 118-bus system.

Uploaded: March 7, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 673-677, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Deqiang Gan, X. Luo, Donald V. Bourcier, and Robert J. Thomas 03/07/01 88.92 KB PDF 00-28
Network Control as a Distributed, Dynamic Game
Abstract - The operation of large, widely distributed networks can be modeled as distributed dynamic games. This paper assembles a space in which to seek good solutions for such games. Five dimensions of this space--automatic learning, resource shares, additional constraints, altruism and deference—are explained and illustrated.

Uploaded: February 13, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 678-681, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Sarosh Talukdar and Eduardo Camponogara 02/13/01 156.02 KB PDF 00-29
Extended Factors for Linear Contingency Analysis
This paper presents preliminary results on three new tools to quickly assess the impact of line outages and reclosure on generators. Abstract - This paper presents preliminary results on three new tools to quickly assess the impact of line outages and reclosure on generators. The first deals with the estimation of the angle across the breaker of an opened line. The second deals with the estimation of the immediate currents that arise in generators in response to a line outage. The third deals with the estimation of the immediate currents that arise in generators in response to a line closure. The first would be used to determine if a reclosing relay might block a reclosure. The second would be used to determine if a line outage might damage a generator. The third would be used to determine if the override of a blocked reclosure might be allowable. The concepts are illustrated on test cases.

Uploaded: March 7, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 697-703, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Peter W. Sauer, Karl E. Reinhard, and Thomas J. Overbye 03/07/01 166.61 KB PDF 00-30
Stability of Limit Cycles in Hybrid Systems
Abstract - Limit cycles are common in hybrid systems. However the nonsmooth dynamics of such systems makes stability analysis difficult. This paper uses recent extensions of trajectory sensitivity analysis to obtain the characteristic multipliers of nonsmooth limit cycles. The stability of a limit cycle is determined by its characteristic multipliers. The concepts are illustrated using a coupled tank system with on/offvalve switching.

Uploaded: February 13, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Ian A. Hiskens 02/13/01 138.28 KB PDF 00-31
Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Power Systems
The following study attempts to calculate the boundaries of the impact of randomly placed distributed generators on a distribution feeder. Abstract - The traditional approach in electric power generation is to have centralized plants distributing electricity through an extensive transmission & distribution network. Distributed generation (DG) provides electric power at a site closer to the customer, eliminating the unnecessary transmission and distribution costs. In addition, it can reduce fossil fuel emissions, defer capital cost, reduce maintenance investments and improve the distribution feeder voltage conditions. In the case of small residential photovoltaic (PV) and wind systems, the actual generator locations and DG penetration level are usually not apriori known. The following study attempts to calculate the boundaries of the impact of randomly placed distributed generators on a distribution feeder. Monte Carlo simulations are performed, and boundaries for overall improvements are determined. The study shows that the knowledge of total penetration of small PV systems is sufficient to estimate the effects of DG on the feeder.

Uploaded: February 13, 2001. 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2001), pp. 654-663, Maui, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001.  
Miroslav M Begovic, Aleksandar Pregelj, Ajeet Rohatgi, and Damir Novosel 02/13/01 251.23 KB PDF 00-32
Capacity Payments and Supply Adequacy in Competitive Electricity Markets
Abstract - This paper discusses alternative approaches that have been adopted around the world for guaranteeing the appropriate level of investment in electric generation capacity. We argue that the use of "capacity payments" is the least desirable approach that undermines the long-term efficiency objectives of the electric industry restructuring. We explain how in an energy only market, long term supply contracts in the form of call options with premiums that depend on the contracts' strike prices can meet the need for ensuring supply adequacy and the financial health of the generation sector.
VII Symposium of Specialists in Electric Operational and Expansion Planning, May 21-16, 2000, Curitiba, Brazil. Uploaded: February 5, 2001.  
Shmuel S. Oren 02/05/01 250.12 KB PDF 00-33a
Capacity Payments and Supply Adequacy in Competitive Electricity Markets
PowerPoint presentation - slides.
VII Symposium of Specialists in Electric Operational and Expansion Planning (VII SEPOPE), Curitiba-Parana, Brazil, May 21-16, 2000.  
Shmuel Oren, Berkeley 07/29/16 343.83 KB PDF 00-33b
Visualization of Oscillation Mode Shapes and Participation Factors
Abstract - Power system oscillations can cause a power system to become unstable if they are too large. The oscillation modes and participation factors are crucial data for the analysis of system oscillations. But on large systems, there can be thousands of data points to look at. The goal of this work is to take oscillation mode shape and participation factor data and display it, so that one can quickly obtain the important information. These displays allow system operators and others interested in the system oscillations to quickly determine which generators are contributing to the oscillations and how each generator's contribution compares to others. Because different users prefer different ways to visualize information, many options have been considered, including changing colors, sizes, and shapes. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional displays will be demonstrated.

Uploaded: April 26, 2001. Master's of Science student thesis, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2000.  
Craig M. Martini, student; Thomas J. Overbye, UIUC 07/29/16 780.13 KB PDF 00-34
Synchronous Machine Parameter Estimation Using Orthogonal Series Expansion
Abstract - This paper presents an alternative to estimate armature circuit parameters of large utility generators using real time operating data. The alternatives consider the use of orthogonal series expansions in general and Hartley series in particular. The main idea considers the use of orthogonal series expansions for fitting operating data (voltage and currents measurements) and/or synthetic input-output data. This allows writing a set of linear algebraic equations that can be solved for the unknown parameters using the pseudoinverse. Hence, the essence of the approach is the linear state estimation and the purpose of generalizing the solution to accept orthogonal series expansion in general is indeed providing ‘windows’ to view the same problem. Although solutions are the same in all domains one wishes to employ the window that gives the best view and the most efficient computation. The approach may be used for static as well as dynamic problems. The approach is tested for noise corruption likely to be found in measurements. The method is found to be suitable for the processing of digital fault recorder data to identify synchronous machine parameters.

Uploaded: May 1, 2001. Journal: Electric Machines & Power Systems, vol. 28, issue 8, pp. 761-777, August 2000.  
Jesus Rico-Melgoza, Gerald T. Heydt, Ali Keyhani, Baj L. Agrawal and Douglas Selin 05/01/01 215.51 KB PDF 00-35a
Synchronous machine parameter estimation using the Hartley series
This paper presents a novel alternative to estimate armature circuit parameters of large utility generators using real time operating data. The proposed approach uses the Hartley series for fitting operating data (voltage and currents measurements). The essence of the method is the use of linear state estimation to identify the coefficients of the Hartley series. The approach is tested for noise corruption likely to be found in measurements. The method is found to be suitable for the processing of digital fault recorder data to identify synchronous machine parameters.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 16, NO. 1, PP. 49-54, MARCH 2001.  
J. Jesús Rico Melgoza, Gerald Thomas Heydt, Ali Keyhani, Baj L. Agrawal, Douglas Selin 07/29/16 318.30 KB PDF 00-35b
Development of Enhanced Electric Arc Furnace Models for Transient Analysis
Abstract - Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are a main cause of voltage flicker due to the interaction of the high demand currents of the loads with the supply system impedance. In order to adequately understand and analyze the effects on the power system from these loads, obtaining an accurate representation of the characteris-tics of the loads is crucial. In this paper, a mixed chaotic EAF model to represent the low frequency and high frequency variations of the arc current respectively and a chain-shaped chaotic EAF model to characterize the current variation have been proposed. The concept of chaotic parameters, such as chaotic resistance, inductance or admittance has been also proposed for the characterization of arc furnace operation and the highly nonlinear physical processes. In addition, a DLL--Dynamic Link Library module, which is a FORTRAN interface with TACS--Transient Analysis of Control Systems, is developed to implement the chaotic load models in the EMTP--Electromagnetic Transients Program. The simulation results are presented in comparison with the actual data to illustrate the validity of the models.

Uploaded: May 1, 2001. Journal: Electric Machines & Power Systems, vol. 29, issue 11, pp. 1061-1071, November 2001.  
Gilsoo Jang, Weiguo Wang, Gerald T. Heydt, Subrahmanyam S. "Mani" Venkata, and Byongjun Lee 05/01/01 606.78 KB PDF 00-36
Application of the Global Positioning System to the Measurement of Overhead Power Transmission Conductor Sag
Abstract - This paper describes a method to directly measure the physical sag of overhead electric power transmission conductors. The method used relies on the Global Positioning System (GPS) used in the differential mode. The direct measurement of sag is a main advantage of the concept. The digital signal processing required is described in detail in a four level configuration. Typical accuracy, response time, problems, strengths and weaknesses of the method are also described.

Uploaded: May 1, 2001. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 17, NO. 1, PP. 273-278, JANUARY 2002.  
Chris Mensah-Bonsu, Ubaldo F. Krekeler, Gerald T. Heydt, Yuri Hoverson, John Schilleci and Baj L. Agrawal 07/29/16 339.30 KB PDF 00-37
Neural Network Based Modeling of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator Rotor Body Parameters from On-Line Disturbance Data
A novel technique to estimate and model rotor-body parameters of a large steam turbine-generator from real time disturbance data is presented. For each set of disturbance data collected at different operating conditions, the rotor body parameters of the generator are estimated using an Output Error Method (OEM). Artificial neural network (ANN) based estimators are later used to model the non-linearities in the estimated parameters based on the generator operating conditions.

Uploaded: May 7, 2001. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 16, NO. 4, PP. 305-311, DECEMBER 2001.  
H. Bora Karayaka, Ali Keyhani, Gerald T. Heydt, Baj L. Agrawal and Douglas A. Selin 05/07/01 466.45 KB PDF 00-38
Increasing Student Interest and Comprehension in Power Engineering Education at the Graduate and Undergraduate Levels
Abstract - This paper reports on new efforts in the modernization of the basic undergraduate courses and a graduate curriculum in electric power engineering. The main focus of the paper is the modernization of the way power engineering is portrayed to students. The motivation is the recognition of the new deregulated and restructured environment in power engineering and the broadening of the area in general. At the undergraduate level, a multimedia approach is described in which renovation of the curriculum is done in such a way as to allow broadening of the subject material. At the graduate level, new efforts in power electronics and electric power quality are described. The implementation of changes as those reported here were made at several universities including Arizona State University.

Uploaded: June 25, 2001. Use of Animation for Improvement of Student Understanding of Energy Conversion: Increasing Student Interest and Comprehension in Power Engineering Education at the Graduate and Undergraduate Levels, November 9, 2000.  
George G. Karady, and Gerald T. Heydt 06/25/01 115.24 KB PDF 00-40
Generation Supply Bidding in Perfectly Competitive Electricity Markets
Abstract - This paper reports on the development of a comprehensive framework for the analysis and formulation of bids in competitive electricity markets. Competing entities submit offers of power and energy to meet the next day's load. We use the England and Wales Power Pool as the basis for the development of a very general competitive power pool (CPP) framework. The framework provides the basis for solving the CPP dispatcher problem and for specifying the optimal bidding strategies. The CPP dispatcher selects the winning bids for the right to serve load each period of the scheduling horizon. The dispatcher must commit sufficient generation to meet the forecasted load and reserve requirements throughout the scheduling horizon.
All the unique constraints under which electrical generators operate including start-up and shut-down time restrictions, reserve requirements and unit output limits must be taken into account. We develop an analytical formulation of the problem faced by a bidder in the CPP by specifying a strategy that maximizes his profits. The optimal bidding strategy is solved analytically for the case of perfect competition. The study in this work takes into account the principal sources of uncertainty, the load forecast, and the actions of the other competitors. The formulation and solution methodology effectively exploit a Lagrangian relaxation based approach. We have conducted a wide range of numerical studies; a sample of numerical results are presented to illustrate the robustness and superiority of the analytically developed bidding strategies.

Uploaded: February 8, 2003. Journal: Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory, vol. 6, pp. 83-98, Copyright: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands, May 2000.  
George Gross and David Finlay 02/08/03 98.79 KB PDF 00-41
Experimental Tests of Deregulated Markets for Electric Power: Market Power and Self-Commitment
The deregulation of the electricity industry in the U.S.A. has been implemented in a relatively decentralized way. Individual states or groups of states within a region have developed different approaches to deregulation. Consequently, the structures of the new markets for electricity are very different from one another. For example, eastern markets have favored a more centralized control compared to the Californian market. Nevertheless, major problems in the performance of these markets have arisen, and there is no obvious winner in the design of a market which delivers reliable power to customers in an economically efficient way. Prices, in particular, have been higher and more volatile than expected.

Uploaded: June 27, 2006. Report to the United States Department of Energy, November 2000.  
Simon Ede, Ray Zimmerman, Timothy D. Mount, Robert J. Thomas, William D. Shulze 06/27/06 808.90 KB PDF 00-42
An Economic Analysis of the Self Commitment of Thermal Unites
Given the load profile of an electricity market and the capabilities of the set of generators supplying power to that market, it is likely that at any given point in time, available supply will exceed demand. If only a subset of generators is required, some method is required to commit and de-commit generators. In the past, system operators have employed a centralized method of unit commitment. Deregulation of the electricity industry throws doubt on the continued suitability of this method due to fairness issues and availability of accurate cost data. This paper will examine the performance of decentralized unit commitment, where dispatch of generators is determined by offer curves submitted into a spot market by power producers.

Uploaded: June 27, 2006. 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2000), Maui, Hawaii, January 4-7, 2000.  
Simon Ede, Ray Zimmerman, Timothy Mount, Robert Thomas, William Schulze 06/27/06 100.38 KB PDF 00-43
An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Marketes for Electricity in the U.S.A.
Earlier research has shown that the behavior of spot prices in the new auction markets for electricity can be described by a stochastic regime-switching model. This model captures the observed price spikes that occur in these markets, particularly during the summer months when levels of load are high. The first part of the paper shows how the exploitation of market power can lead to offers to sell power that are consistent with price spikes. An important feature of the model is that some suppliers are indifferent to having marginal units dispatched when they have sufficient market power. Given this analytical framework, the second part of the paper extends the regime switching model of prices by making key parameters functions of forecasted load. The first application shows how the structure of the PJM market changed when market-based offers were allowed, resulting in higher price spikes. The second application compares price behavior in PJM, New England and California.

Uploaded: June 27, 2006. Presented at the 19th Annual Eastern Conference on the Competitive Challenge in Network Industries: Advanced Workshop in Regulation and Competition, Rutgers University, Lake George, New York, May 2000.  
Timothy D. Mount, Yumei Ning, Hyungna Oh 06/27/06 428.83 KB PDF 00-44
Can Experimental Economics Help Guide Restructuring of Electric Power?
The U.S. electric power industry, in particular California and the Northeastern United States, has taken major steps to restructure its institutional arrangements to support competition among energy suppliers. The U.S. is not the first in the world to embark on this path, and to refer to the undertaking as deregulation would be a mistake. In early 1990s, the United Kingdom restructured it's industry to form separate generation, transmission, and distribution companies (Newbery and Green 1996). Today, this arrangement represents one of the most complex regulatory environments in the world due to efforts to ensure that the independent companies provide reliable electric power at 'fair' prices.

Uploaded: June 27, 2006. Prepared for the National Science Foundation (NSF) / U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) / Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Sponsored Workshop: Future Research Directions for Complex Interactive Electric Networks, Washington, D.C., November 16-17, 2000.  
William D. Schulze, Simon Ede, Ray D. Zimmerman, John Bernard, Timothy Mount, Robert Thomas, Richard Schuler 06/27/06 532.88 KB PDF 00-45
Strategic Behavior in Spot Markets for Electricity when Load is Stochastic
In the first part of the paper, daily price data for the past three summer seasons in the PJM wholesale market are used to estimate a stochastic regime switching model. These data show that the average price in 1999, when market-based offers were allowed, was twice as high as it was in the previous two seasons when offers had to be cost-based. The primary cause was that the price spikes in 1999 were much higher than they were in 1997-98, but not more frequent. The second part of the paper derives an optimum set of offers for individual suppliers endowed with different levels of market power. A supplier controlling generation equivalent to 20% of the expected load in the market is shown to submit offers that are up to 80% higher than the true cost. Nevertheless, these offers are still much lower than the offers that set the high prices in the PJM market. The explanation is that suppliers with sufficient market power are indifferent to whether or not marginal units are dispatched, and they can set high offers on these units without forfeiting expected profits.

Uploaded: June 27, 2006. 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2000), Maui, Hawaii, January 4-7, 2000.  
Timothy D. Mount 06/27/06 112.15 KB PDF 00-46
Stability-Constrained Optimal Power Flow
Abstract - Stability is an important constraint in power system operation. Often trial and error heuristics are used that can be costly and imprecise. A new methodology that eliminates the need for repeated simulation to determine a transiently secure operating point is presented. The theoretical development is straightforward: dynamic equations are converted to numerically equivalent algebraic equations and then integrated into the standard OPF formulation. Implementation issues and simulation results are discussed in the context of a 162-bus system.

Uploaded: June 27, 2006. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2, PP. 535-540, MAY 2000.  
Deqiang Gan, Robert J. Thomas, Ray D. Zimmerman 06/27/06 84.87 KB PDF 00-47
Parallel Processing Implementation of the Unit Commitment Problem with Full AC Power Flow Constraints
In this paper, the authors describe a parallel implementation of the Lagrangian Relaxation Algorithm with variable duplication for the thermal unit commitment problem. The formulation was previously reported by the authors and allows inclusion of the full nonlinear AC network power flow model, which permits addressing voltage limits, as well as more realistic branch flow limits than is possible with a linear DC flow model. Thus, potential VAr production can be used as another criterion for commitment of otherwise expensive generators in strategic locations. The algorithm is highly parallelizable, and the authors have taken advantage of this in a version currently being developed for the Cornell Theory Center’s Velocity AC3 NT cluster.

Uploaded: June 27, 2006. 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2000), pp. 1283-1291, Maui, Hawaii, January 4-7, 2000.  
Carlos E. Murillo-Sanchez, Robert J. Thomas 06/27/06 842.39 KB PDF 00-48
Design Optimization and Performance Evaluation of the Relay Algorithms, Relays and Protective Systems Using Advanced Testing Tools
Design Optimization and Performance Evaluation of the Relay Algorithms, Relays and Protective Systems Using Advanced Testing Tools This paper defines underlying performance quality measures for designing, optimizing, setting and evaluating the protective relaying algorithms and equipment. The paper starts with evaluation of digital measuring algorithms, and gradually introduces the performance indices for the operating principles, relays and protection systems. Multi-objective formal ranking methods based on fuzzy set theory are used to combine diverse measures into composite performance indices enabling evaluating and optimizing various functions of protective equipment.

Uploaded: June 30, 2006. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 15, NO. 4, PP. 1129-1135, OCTOBER 2000.  
Mladen Kezunovic and Bogdan Kasztenny 07/29/16 258.39 KB PDF 00-49a
Design Optimization and Performance Evaluation of the Relay Algorithms, Relays and Protective Systems Using Advanced Testing Tools
Abstract - This paper defines underlying performance quality measures for designing, optimizing, setting and evaluating the protective relaying algorithms and equipment. The paper starts with evaluation of digital measuring algorithms, and gradually introduces the performance indices for the operating principles, relays and protection systems. Multi-objective formal ranking methods based on fuzzy set theory are used to combine diverse measures into composite performance indices enabling evaluating and optimizing various functions of protective equipment.

21st IEEE Power Engineering Society (PES) International Conference on Power Industry Computer Applications (PICA 1999), pp. 309-314, Santa Clara, California, May 16-21, 1999.  
Mladen Kezunovic, Bogdan Kasztenny 07/29/16 1.82 MB PDF 00-49b